Donnerstag, 10. März 2016

Heute vor 104 Jahren – 10. März 1912: Yuan Shikai wird Präsident Chinas

Yuan Shikai - Warlord und Diktator 

Yuan Shikai (1859-1916) stieg als Offizier in den Kriegen Chinas gegen Japan und Korea auf und wurde 1895 Kommandeur der »neuen Arrnee« der Kaiserinwitwe Cixi (1835-1908). Planvoll wie skrupellos verfolgte er fortan das Ziel, zum Militärmachthaber in China aufzusteigen und den Ministerrat auszuschalten. Beim Sturz der Monarchie 1912 spielte er als Oberbefehlshaber der Armee Nordchinas eine Schlüsselrolle, hielt sich aber zugleich alle Optionen offen. Zunächst ließ er sich zum Premier des Kindkaisers Puyi ernennen, näherte sich aber zugleich den Revolutionären um Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) an. Als er erkannte, dass sich die Machtverhältnisse umkehrten, erzwang er Puyis Abdankung und ließ sich am 10. März 1912 zum ersten Präsidenten der neuen Republik China wählen. 
Der Zopf muß ab: Yuan Shikai als Präsident der Rapublik
China, März 1912
Das Erstarken der nationalchinesischen Partei Kuomintang empfand Yuan Shikai als Bedrohung seiner persönlichen Macht, die er als Militärdiktatur verstand. Er trieb daher Sun Yat-sen ins Exil. Anschließend machte er sich im Dezember 1915 selbst zum Kaiser und führte die Monarchie wieder ein. Von seinen eigenen Kommandeuren im März 1916 gestürzt, starb er wenig später. 

Was am 10. März noch geschah: 
1098: Gründung des ersten Kreuzfahrerstaates, der Grafschaft Edessa (Bestand bis 1149/59)

Harenberg - Abenteuer Geschichte 2016 
Yuan Shikai [3:18]

Hochgeladen am 06.11.2009
General Yuan Shikai was the premier military commander of the late Qing dynasty. He served as Imperial Resident in Korea before the start of the Sino-Japanese War when Yuan Shikai returned to active military service. Later he was made commander of the New Army, the most modern military force in Imperial China. He turned against Emperor GuangXu to support Empress-Dowager Cixi in stopping reform efforts but after her death he made an agreement with the republican revolutionaries to obtain the Qing abdication in return for becoming President of the Republic of China. In December 1915 - January 1916 he proclaimed himself Emperor of China. However, the republicans adamantly opposed him while most monarchists remained loyal to the former Qing Emperor and his own family suffered from in-fighting over who would be heir-to-the-throne. Before 1916 was over he had been forced to abdicate, was expelled from power and died.

Double Ten 1911 Historic Event Leads to Fall of Qing Dynasty [2:58]

Veröffentlicht am 16.10.2012
October 10th, 1911 was the day that marked the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and led to the end of China's 2,000 years of dynastic rule.

On that day, a bomb accidentally exploded—triggering a coup in the city of Wuchang, in Hubei Province.

China under the Qing Dynasty was challenged on every front during the first decade of the 20th Century. These challenges included moral disintegration, defeat by Japan, Empress Dowager's coup d'état against the emperor, and the Boxer Rebellion.

The October 10th Wuchang Uprising toppled the Qing Dynasty—the last imperial dynasty. The coup triggered the Xinhai Revolution or 1911 Chinese Revolution and ended with the abdication of the last Qing Emperor Puyi on February 12th, 1912. It led to the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC) in 1912.

One of the key players in the downfall of the Qing Dynasty during the Double Ten Wuchang Uprising was Sun Yat-sen.

Sun became the first president and the founding father of the Republic of China under the Nationalist Party or KMT. As the pioneer of the Republic, Sun was regarded as the "Father of the Nation." He co-founded the KMT and became its first leader.

Another key figure was Yuan Shikai—a leading general under the ousted Qing Dynasty—who became the second president of the Republic of China. According to historical texts, Yuan established himself as a military dictator and later tried to declare himself as the emperor.

However, the aspirations of the pioneer revolutionaries to replace the Qing Dynasty with a republican government never really took off. After Yuan's death in 1916, and until 1928, China remained divided as warlords fought for power. This became a period in the history of the Republic of China known as the Warlord Era.

Despite these, the Double Ten 1911 Wuchang Uprising marks a major turning point in Chinese history. It ended China's 2,000-year tradition of dynastic rule by emperors, who were regarded as the 'Son of Heaven' in traditional Chinese culture. It also ended the Manchus nearly 300 years domination of the Han Chinese.

In 1949 Nationalist forces were defeated by the Communists and fled, moving the Republic of China to Taiwan where it has remained until today. October 10th continues to be one of the most important national holidays in Taiwan.

The Last Emperor of China [1:40:54]

Veröffentlicht am 24.03.2012
The Last Emperor of China

Empress Dowager Cixi [3:53]

Hochgeladen am 26.08.2010
Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade-Giles: Tz'u-Hsi T'ai-hou) (29 November 1835 -- 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected by the Xianfeng Emperor as a concubine in her adolescence, she climbed the ranks of Xianfeng's harem and gave birth to a son who became the Tongzhi Emperor upon Xianfeng's death. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency over her young son with the Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control and established near-absolute rule over the dynasty. She installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. A conservative ruler who refused to adopt Western models of government, Cixi rejected reformist views and placed Guangxu under house arrest in later years for supporting reformers. However, after a humiliating clash with the Eight-Nation Alliance, external and internal pressures led Cixi to attempt institutional changes and appoint reform-minded officials. Ultimately, the Qing Dynasty collapsed a few years after her death.

Historians from both Kuomintang and Communist backgrounds have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the Qing Dynasty, but in recent years professional historians have suggested that she was a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, a leader no more ruthless than others, and in fact an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.

[Eng sub] Empress Dowager Cixi forces young emperor to choose wives [7:18]

Veröffentlicht am 24.10.2015
Empress Dowager Cixi seized power in 1861 and has since ruled the Chinese empire as the regent for several infant emperors, including her nephew, Emperor Guangxu. Now, Guangxu the boy emperor has grown up. He wants to be free from the control and influence of Cixi, his aunt whom he ceremoniously addresses as mother. This clip is from a 2010 historical and political drama, "The Firmament of the Pleiades" (蒼穹之昴). The drama stars Japanese actress Yuko Tanaka (田中裕子) as Empress Dowager Cixi.

Jung Chang, "Empress Dowager Cixi" [40:18]

Veröffentlicht am 21.11.2013

Called both a tyrant and a reformer, Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908), who led China for nearly fifty years, belongs on any list of indomitable women rulers. In this extraordinary biography Chang, co-author of Mao: the Unknown Story, recounts the series of wily political maneuvers, ruthless battles with enemies, and insatiable curiosity about the world that made this woman not just a survivor but formidable leader.

Founded by Carla Cohen and Barbara Meade in 1984, Politics & Prose Bookstore is Washington, D.C.'s premier independent bookstore and cultural hub, a gathering place for people interested in reading and discussing books. Politics & Prose offers superior service, unusual book choices, and a haven for book lovers in the store and online. Visit them on the web at http://www.politics-prose.com/

PBS 中国:一个世纪的革命] PBS China A Century of Revolution 1 China In Revolution 1911 1949 [1:53:18]

Veröffentlicht am 18.09.2013
中文名称:PBS 中国:一个世纪的革命
英文名称:PBS China - A Century of Revolution
发行时间:2002年02月05日
电视台:PBS
地区:美国
语言:英语
简介:
《中国:一个世纪的革命》(China - A Century of Revolution),制片人Sue Williams的母亲在中国出生,她的外祖父母也在中国生活了很多年。她从小就耳闻­了不少有关中国在1950年代前的事情。 自从上个世纪80年代后期她陆续拍"China in Revolution","The Mao Years",和"Born Under the Red Flag",合称 "China Trilogy",在Amazon.com的片名叫"China: A Century of Revolution",制作者耗资一百多万美元,制作中花费百分之六七十的时间在与­中国政府及其地方官员的周旋与获得采访允许上,从新闻报道、选裁,到制作、配乐等,都­独具匠心。
CHINA Trilogy
I: CHINA IN REVOLUTION
II: THE MAO YEARS
III: BORN UNDER THE RED FLAG

Utopia, Mao and the Empress Dowager Cixi - An SWF 2013 Lecture by Jung Chang [1:09:17]

Veröffentlicht am 13.12.2013
What is the difference between the vision of an emperor, a dictator and a popularly elected leader? Or is it that all men and women in power have the same idea of Utopia: in particular, their Utopia. Hot in the wake of her new work Empress Dowager Cixi that promises a revisionist take on the much-debated Dowager Empress, internationally renowned author Jung Chang of the best-selling Wild Swans and the highly praised Mao: The Unknown Story makes a return to SWF to share her insights into two great, historical Chinese leaders who remain in the popular imagination long after their demise.  

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The Cultural Foundations of Chinese Communism - Lecture by Elizabeth Perry [1:53:14]

Veröffentlicht am 17.04.2013
April 15, 2013 

How do we explain the surprising trajectory of the Chinese Communist revolution? Why has it taken such a different route from its Russian prototype?

An answer, Elizabeth Perry suggests, lies in the Chinese Communists' creative deployment of cultural resources -- during their revolutionary rise to power and afterward. Skillful "cultural positioning" and "cultural patronage" on the part of Mao Zedong, his comrades, and successors helped to construct a polity in which a foreign political system came to be accepted as familiarly "Chinese." Illustrated by numerous colorful images, Perry's talk traces this process through a case study of the Anyuan coal mine, where Mao and other early Communist leaders mobilized an influential labor movement at the beginning of their revolution. Once known as "China's Little Moscow," Anyuan came over time to serve as a touchstone of "political correctness" that symbolized a distinctively Chinese revolutionary tradition. Perry explores the contested meanings of that tradition as contemporary Chinese debate their revolutionary past in search of a new political future.

Elizabeth J. Perry is the Henry Rosovsky Professor of Government and Director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. She is a comparativist with special expertise in the politics of China. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship, she sits on the editorial boards of nearly a dozen major scholarly journals, holds honorary professorships at six Chinese universities, and has served as the President of the Association for Asian Studies. Professor Perry's research focuses on popular protest and grassroots politics in modern and contemporary China.

Her books include Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945 (1980); Chinese Perspectives on the Nien Rebellion (1981); Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China (1992); Proletarian Power: Shanghai in the Cultural Revolution (1997); Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics (2001); Mao's Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance in China (2011); and Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition (2012). Her book, Shanghai on Strike: the Politics of Chinese Labor (1993), won the John King Fairbank prize from the American Historical Association. Her article, "Chinese Conceptions of Rights" (2008), won the Heinz Eulau award from the American Political Science Association.

Mao's Revolution: What Remains [56:02]

Hochgeladen am 31.01.2008
China expert and Harvard political scientist Roderick MacFarquhar joins UC Berkeley's Graduate School of Journalism Dean Orville Schell for a lecture and discussion of the lasting impact of Chairman Mao's Communist Revolution in China. Series: "UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism presents" [12/2005] [Public Affairs] [Show ID: 11239]

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